Collect data and preliminary analysis
To be able to collect high quality energy data, sub-metering is a pre-requisite. At Novartis, minimum requirements recommended for sub-metering are:
- Electricity meters for all systems (e.g. chillers, air-compressors, heat exchangers, motors) with annual electricity cost >USD10k (or energy consumption >360GJ or 100MWh)
- Gas (or fuel oil) meters for all sites
- Steam meters for all stream boilers and users with annual energy cost >USD40k (>3600GJ or 1000MWh)
- Energy meters for all heating water loops and all equipment using hot water with energy costs >USD20k (>1800GJ or 500MWh)
- Energy meters for all chilled water loops of energy cost >USD20k (>3600GJ or 1000MWh, calculated as heat content of chilled water)
Metering for the entire site is expected to provide data on hourly consumption of electricity and gas at least for sites with annual energy costs >USD200k (which is equivalent to about 10,800GJ or 3000MWh).
Example of data collection process and preliminary analysis at Novartis
In 2010, Novartis collected energy data on heating, ventilation, air conditioning and plug loads from 40 selected commercial buildings. This was part of the first phase of our group-wide initiative dedicated to the sustainability of these buildings that was launched in 2010, after signing the WBSCD Manifesto on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in 2009.
After having collected the data, we determined energy efficiency targets for each individual building, specifically addressing its type of use and particular climate zone. The method, based on an approach designed in cooperation with local authorities, was first applied at the Novartis Campus in Basel (Switzerland), our Group’s global headquarters. It was then developed into a globally applicable tool. All sites participating in the initiative have defined the specific energy efficiency targets for the selected commercial buildings and benchmarked the energy use of the buildings with these targets.
The energy efficiency of commercial buildings is measured by total energy use per indoor area in mega joules per square meter (MJ/m2). All energy consumption for heating, ventilation, air conditioning and plug loads are included in this figure. Specific targets were defined for the different application areas in commercial buildings. These include offices, various types of laboratories, and special use areas such as restaurants, shops, auditoriums and entrances. Energy targets were also developed for technical areas, which are often located in the basement of a building.
To compensate for varying energy needs in different climatic environments, historical weather data was used (heating and cooling degree day data). Buildings located in tropical regions have significant cooling requirements and colder locations have a greater heating demand. The energy targets for these buildings were calculated differently than locations in temperate zones. The energy efficiency performance, measured by electricity and heat sub-metering, was then compared to the specific target as determined for each building.
The performance versus target ratio is being monitored annually. This provides useful feedback that enables Novartis to follow-up on improvements that have been implemented in the meantime. The measurement process also monitors and compensates for changes in energy use that result from annual variations in weather.
To measure the effectiveness of a site’s energy management system, we developed a tool called the energy management fitness index. This tool consists of 23 questions that address three energy management areas: Organizational issues, procedures and performance. The responses are scored and then summarized to the index (indicating the percentage of full compliance). Novartis as a Group, as well as its Divisions and sites, can use this index for setting a “leading indicator” target to harmonize energy management best practice.
The fitness index was used to evaluate, track and benchmark the energy management systems in use at the commercial sites participating with one or several buildings in the WBCSD Manifesto initiative.
During the rollout of phase II in 2011, the participating sites completed an energy assessment questionnaire (developed in collaboration with external energy specialists) for each building included in the initiative. This questionnaire enabled information to be collected on the actual energy efficiency performance of the buildings and to create a comparison with the energy systems applied at Novartis sites worldwide. At three of the sites included in the initiative, on-site energy audits were conducted using the same approach as in the questionnaire.
As a result, areas for technical improvement have been identified, documented in detail, and reported back to the sites. This data will also be used for benchmarking purposes.
To accurately determine the sustainability of its commercial buildings, Novartis developed the Building Sustainability Scorecard (BSS). This self-assessment tool addresses the key energy and environmental criteria of a building, i.e., topics of the energy audit questionnaire as well as related environmental criteria.
In phase 3 of the initiative, the energy efficiency measures were implemented.
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