Common equipment and EEMs

System surveyPotential Efficiency Improvement
HVAC Equipment

Cooling Systems - List all systems by space/location

  • HVAC control set-up including set point adjustment
    • Determine space categories and controls applied to them
    • Apply schedules of building services
    • Check free cooling capabilities while applying above scheduler/set-point strategies
    • Peak demand management if demand cost model applies with utilities
    • Supervise and avoid manual operation or manual set-point overrides
    • Apply procedures to treat alarms and system errors in building automation and controls
    • Building services shall be scheduled according to their effective use while set-points of applied services are set back to economy (e.g. higher cooling.lower heating, less air quality) e.g. bypass of chiller while "free cooling" is applicable
  • HVAC and controls retrofits (including use of reheat coils and use of VAVm VRV, DRV)
  • Heating fuel selection (biomass, natural gas, electrivity etc)
  • CHP and tri-generation
  • Running energy-focused user behavior programs
  • Retro-commissioning or system tune-ups
  • Deploy Scheduled Operation and Maintenance Programs
  • Install Programmable Thermostats
  • Consider Using a Solar Ventilation Preheating System for Combustion Air
  • Replace Pneumatic Sensors with Electronic Sensors
  • Install Dedicated Outside Air AHUs
  • Exhaust Air Energy Recovery
  • Variable Refrigerant Flow System
  • Sensible and Latent Energy Recovery Ventilators
  • Heat Recovery Chillers
  • Liquid Desiccants with Solar Thermal Energy
  • Radiant Cooling Systems or Chilled Beam Systems
  • Convert Three-Way Chilled Water Valves to Two-Way Valves
  • Install More Energy Efficient Chillers (example VSD)
  • Replace Large Air Cooled Cooling Equipment with Water Cooled Chillers and Cooling Towers
  • Reset Chilled Water Supply Temperature Based on Cooling Coil Valve Position
  • Reset Condenser Water Based on Outside Air Wet-Bulb and Install VSDs on Cooling Tower Fans
  • Convert the Primary/Secondary Chilled Water Plant to Variable Flow Primary
  • Install a Desiccant Dehumidification System
  • Verify Proper Operation of Air Dampers
  • Verify Proper Operation of Air-Side Economizer
  • Verify Proper Operation of Heating and Cooling Valves
  • Check the Condition of Heating and Cooling Coils and AHU Filters
  • Eliminate Duct Leakage
  • Eliminate 100% of Outside Air Systems if Practicable
  • Reduce Outside Airflow Rates to ASHRAE 62.1-2010
  • Implement an HVAC System Night Setback Schedule
  • Track HVAC Setback
  • Monitor Exhaust Fan Controls
  • Slow Down Systems During Unoccupied Hours
  • Adjust Total Airflow and Head if a Constant Air Volume System
  • Convert the Constant Volume System to a VAV System
  • Implement a Supply Air Temperature Reset Schedule if a Constant Air Volume System
  • Investigate Duct Static Pressure in a Variable Air Volume System
  • Reset the Supply Air Temperature in a Variable Air Volume System

Heating Systems - List all systems by space/location

Air Distribution (AHU & exhaust fans) - List all systems by space/location

HVAC Control System / Local or BMS

Boilers

District Heating and Cooling

Central Chiller - Water Cooled or Air cooled

Evaporative Coolers

Fan-coil Units

Furnaces

Heat Pumps

Individual Air Conditioner

Individual Space Heater

Cooling Towers

Economizers

Pumps

Building Management System (BMS)

Reheat coils

Purchased steam

Air compressor

Office Equipment & Plug Load

Desktop computers

  • Running energy-focused user behavior programs
  • Centralized Computer Power Management
  • Use Laptops with Docking Stations instead of Desktops
  • Use of ENERGY STAR certified Office Appliances & Equipment
  • Mandate Use of Network Printers – Eliminate Personal Printers
  • Manually reduce the brightness level of your office’s computers

Laptop computers

Computer Servers

Monitors - CRT, LCD/LED

Printers - Inkjet, Laser

Fax Machines

Copiers and Scanners

Multi-function devices (MFDs)

Lighting

Lamp Fixture Type / Count by Space

  • Lighting retrofits (Fluorescent, LED)
  • Lighting controls (PIR sensors, daylight sensors etc.)
  • Increasing use of natural daylight (Light pipes, sky domes)
  • Running energy-focused user behavior programs
  • Replace Incandescent Lamps, T-12 Lamps and Magnetic Ballasts with T-5 or T-8 Lamps and Electroni
  • c Ballasts
  • Replace Standard T-5 or T-8 Lamps with Low Wattage T-5 or T-8 Lamps and Low Ballast-Factor Ballasts
  • Install Perimeter Dimming Ballasts
  • Optimized Interior Security Lighting
  • Replace Exit Signs with LED Exit Signs
  • Replace Incandescent Recessed Can Fixtures with LED or CFL Lighting
  • Replace Incandescent and Fluorescent Cooler/Freezer Lights with LED Lighting
  • Replace/Install Under-Cabinet and Task Lighting
  • Install Central Lighting Management System
  • Reduce Lighting Levels on Over-Lit Spaces
  • Replace Linear Fluorescent “Milky White” Lens with Clear Acrylic Prismatic Lens
  • Install Metallic Reflectors
  • Maximize natural lighting in your workspace.
  • Clean light fixtures and windows.
  • Place signs throughout office reminding employees to turn off lights when leaving a room.

Lamp / Fixture Wattage

Lighting controls

Elevators & Escalators

Elevator (human/goods)

  • Running energy-focused user behavior programs
  • Reduce hours of operation
  • High efficiency motors
  • Regenerative

Conveyors

Escalators

Data Centre

Data centre

  • Calculate PUE
  • Free cooling
  • Heat recovery
  • Layout (cold isle)
  • UPS specification
  • Energy use rating of new equipment
  • Cloud based systems

UPS

Data Centre Cooling

Other

Refrigeration

  • Improvements to building envelope
  • Running energy-focused user behavior programs
  • Installing smart building technologies
  • Replace Old or Single-Pane Windows
  • Low-E Insulating Glass or film
  • Add Low-E film to Old or Single-Pane Windows
  • Install Additional Insulation in Exterior Walls
  • Seal Areas of Infiltration in Exterior Walls
  • Fix Rain Leaks in Exterior Walls
  • Install Solar Shading on E-W-S Facing Facades (Northern hemisphere)
  • Install Revolving Doors
  • Create Entrance Vestibule with Two Doors
  • Install Weather-Stripping On Loading Dock Doors
  • Increase Roof Insulation
  • Retrofit Existing Roof with Cool Roof
  • Onsite renewable energy implementation (biomass, solar PV, solar thermal, heat pumps, wind turbines, Anaerobic Digestion)

Catering

Hot Water (calorifiers)

Building envelope

Compressed air

Process equipment

Plug loads

BMS (Building Management System)

Power Factor and Voltage optimization equipment

Lighting

Lighting can often represent the ‘low hanging fruit’ of EEM implementation. In general, improving the energy efficiency of lighting is relatively straight-forward as the technologies are well defined with known payback. The goal of a lighting strategy is to ensure visual comfort for tasks whilst reducing the amount of energy consumed and/or reducing the hours of operation.

When carrying out a lighting upgrade, it is worth considering lighting control technologies as well, to minimize electricity consumption and help reduce lighting system operational costs. Potential energy savings from enhanced or centralized lighting controls will vary depending on factors such as hours of use and type of lighting. In pre-1986 buildings, up to 25 percent of electric lighting energy consumption can be saved with little or no user impact1.

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

There are significant opportunities for improving the energy efficiency of HVAC systems in most buildings. Efficiency improvements may include changes to system controls, set-points, re-commissioning, boiler upgrades, etc. However the complexity of modern highly integrated systems means this a specialist activity.

Building management systems (BMS)

Most modern buildings have some form of building management system or building automation and control system (BMS). It is estimated that an efficient and correctly monitored BMS reduces a commercial building's energy consumption by up to 25%2.

An advanced BMS can provide sophisticated centralized monitoring, measurement, analysis and control features, providing far greater functionality than a standard BMS. These control systems optimize energy-use through application software and a series of control devices and data sensors. Measurements ranging from air temperature, humidity and water temperature to lighting levels are fed back to the BMS, which makes a potentially data rich platform for the assessment and optimization of energy efficiency.

Building envelope

The building envelope is the interface between the interior of the building and the outdoor environment, and serves as a thermal barrier (or bridge). It plays an important role in a building's energy equation as it modifies the direct effects of climate variables such as daylight, outdoor temperature, humidity, wind, solar radiation and rain, all of which influence internal energy requirements and thermal comfort. It is estimated that 60% of the energy used to heat and cool an average commercial building is lost through the building envelope3 (with the majority of further heat loss occurring through ventilation and infiltration).

The building envelope comprises of a building's exterior components, including walls, roofing, foundations, windows, doors, insulation and other physical features for controlling moisture and airflow. Therefore any improvements, such as insulation, glazing, façade treatment and daylighting systems, constitute energy efficiency measures. Implementation quality has a significant impact on the degree of energy efficiency and the indoor climate achieved, so this must be assessed.

References

1 AfterImage & Space for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program, 2006. Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Economics Validation Study.

2 Department of Finance and Personnel, Northern Ireland Executive, 2006. Good Practice Case Study: BMS Linked Heating Controls and Gas Conversion, at the University of Ulster, Belfast Campus. Available online

3 Carbon Trust, undated. Buildings energy efficiency. Available online